Molecular biology of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key factor in most processes that are important for general homeostasis. VDRs are found in a variety of cellular material, including monocytes, dendritic cellular material, macrophages, neutrophils, keratinocytes, and epithelial cells.

The vitamin D receptor is a indivisible receptor that is turned on by the vitamin D hormone. It is just a receptor that varieties a heterodimer with the retinoid X radio. The joining of the vitamin D complex along with the RXR produces the account activation of a lot of intracellular signaling pathways. These pathways generate immediate replies independent of the transcriptional response of target family genes.

VDRs can be thought to mediate the effects of calciferol on bone maintenance. This is supported by the correlation between bone tissue density and VDR radio alleles in human beings. In addition , numerous VDR concentrate on genes have been identified, which includes calcium-binding necessary protein, calbindin D-9k and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase.

Many studies have investigated the expression of VDR in various cells. For instance, confocal microscopy indicates VDR indivisible staining in human cortex cells. Additionally , VDR has been found in light matter oligodendrocytes. These conclusions have generated the hypothesis that calcium-dependent platelet account activation may be controlled by rapid non-genomic effects of VDR in mitochondria.

In addition to vitamin D, VDRs have been suggested as a factor in regulation of calcium homeostasis in the large intestine. However , the exact device is not known. Various elements, including environmental exposures and genetic elements, may regulate VDR expression.